Image: Young Syrian and Palestinian refugees and Jordanian youth discuss strategy for their football game organised by Oxfam and the youth club in the Baqa'a refugee camp in Amman, Jordan. Image by: Suzi O Keefe
What does it feel like to be a refugee? Perceptions from Za’atari and beyond
What does it feel like to be a refugee, forced to flee to an unfamiliar country and dependent on humanitarian assistance to survive? How do you know where to turn, who to trust for accurate information and how to meet the basic needs of your family? In order to better understand the ways in which Syrian refugees in Jordan experience the international humanitarian response we commissioned a research project [LLG1] on refugee perceptions. We aimed to not only improve our own service delivery and communication with refugees but also to ensure that the voices of those affected by the crisis help to shape the humanitarian response now and in the future.
Jordan has become home to nearly 600,000 registered refugees fleeing the brutal conflict in Syria and the strain on Jordan’s infrastructure and public services is showing. While media reports often relay crowded images from Za’atari camp, 80% of the refugees who have crossed the border are living in host communities outside refugee camps. Syrian refugees living around cities and villages are not legally permitted to work and are, therefore, reliant on humanitarian assistance.
Numerous governmental and UN agencies, as well as international and local NGOs are providing humanitarian relief in an attempt to alleviate the suffering of refugees and strengthen the resilience of host communities in Jordan. However, in a stark reminder of the daily challenges that refugees face, 50% of the study’s respondents in both Za’atari refugee camp and in urban-based host communities, as well as informal tented settlements, reported difficulties in accessing basic services.
In Za’atari, a striking 74% of the study’s respondents identified distance as a barrier to accessing services. This may sound strange when thinking about refugees concentrated into one area, but recent estimates now place Za’atari as Jordan’s fourth largest city with between 80,000 and 120,000 residents. Another 25% of respondents said that lack of knowledge or information of the services prevented them from receiving aid. In the host communities too, distance and lack of knowledge of services are cited as factors for the lack of access to quality medical, educational and nutritional services.
The study indicated that a vast number of respondents relied on word of mouth for information on services, making beneficiaries vulnerable to rumors, manipulation of information, and general gaps in communication. This is especially difficult in host communities where refugees are spread out across different areas. In both the camps and the host communities, it was evident that refugees did not feel there was clear communication about the kinds of services available to them. Our report lists a number of recommendations to the Government of Jordan, donors, UN agencies and NGOs operating in the country, on how to strengthen services provision. For example, the UN and NGO actors must develop better ways to receive and incorporate feedback from beneficiaries and be attentive to gender-based mobility restrictions by conducting more home visits, recruiting more female field staff and targeting women when disseminating information about services.
Oxfam is actively working to incorporate these recommendations into our current programming. To improve communities’ knowledge of the range of services in different sectors, we are distributing leaflets with information on other service providers, specifically targeting Syrian refugee peer groups and volunteers. Legal entitlements were another area where respondents to the survey indicated they lacked information. Oxfam is now working with local partner ARDD [LLG2] to hold awareness sessions on legal rights of refugees in Jordan. In addition, we are working to improve hotline services, adding an extra line and more staff to respond to beneficiaries, and setting up call and information centers in project areas to receive complaints and feedback.
While the crisis shows no signs of abating, it is essential that refugees are aware of their rights and the services available to them in Jordan if they are to live in dignity. The daily lives of Syrians have changed dramatically. How do humanitarian actors ensure that their basic needs are met and human rights respected, while at the same time tackling the misconceptions of our work among some community members? We will use the study to answer this and many other questions in order to improve our services and the work we do on a local and international level. We hope it also helps others to understand – even to a small degree - about what it means to be displaced, far from home and dependent on others.